Selecting the variety of the grape is crucial depending on what you will use your grapes for. Once you have selected your variety plant your grapevines as early as possible to give the plant time to establish in preparation for the winter season. Soak your vine 3-4 hours before planting. Plant vines with the lowest bud on the cane just above the soil surface. Irrigate grapevines initially after planting and continue to irrigate weekly in order to keep the soil moist. Additionally, grapevines will require some sort of structural support in the growing phase in order to grow up and not along the ground.
Grapes can tolerate a wide variety of soil types but the most ideal soil type is sandy loam. Grapes require moderate soil nutrient content. Addition of nitrogen and potassium to the soils before the growing season can be beneficial in soils with lower nutrient content. Grapes do best in slightly acidic conditions with a pH level ranging from 5.5-7.0. Well-drained soil conditions are also important in root production and to prevent crop disease.
Grapes are best grown in climates with a mild winter and a long, warm growing period. Grapes require around 710 mm of rain each year. Too much or too little rain can be detrimental to successful fruit production. Mediterranean regions are very successful in their grape production due to the relatively stable growing season that consists of warm and dry temperatures. Grapevines require a temperature of at least 10 degrees Celsius or 50 degrees Fahrenheit to begin physiological processes. The temperature, rainfall, and other climatic factors during production will have an impact on the flavour profile of the grapes. This is seen especially in the wine industry where the regional climatic difference has an effect on the taste of the final product. Furthermore, certain grape varieties are more suited for specific regions and climatic zones.