Using healthy, disease-free seed tubers is of paramount importance for a successful potato crop. Weeds need to be removed by the time the canopy develops (within about 4 weeks after planting) in order for plants to grow well. Earthing up of the soil every 15-20 days helps to limit weed growth and also loosen soil. As potato has high nutrient requirements, green manure is recommended as one form of fertilization. Since potato has a shallow root system, irrigations should be light. After harvest, potatoes should be dried for 10-15 days in the shade so that curing of the skin occurs. Potato is ideal for intercropping, especially with sugarcane, fennel, onion, mustard, wheat, or linseed.
Potatoes can be grown almost on any type of soil except saline and alkaline soils. Soils that are naturally loose and offer the least resistance to tuber growth is preferred. Loamy and sandy loam soils, rich in organic matter and with good drainage and aeration are most suitable for cultivation of potato crop. Soils with pH range of 5.2-6.4 are considered to be ideal.
Potato is a temperate climate crop, however it grows under a diverse range of climatic conditions. It is grown only in places where the growing season's temperature is moderately cool. The vegetative growth of the plant is best at a temperature of 24°C while tuber development is favoured at 20°C. Hence, potato is grown as a summer crop in the hills and as a winter crop in the tropical and subtropical regions. The crop can be raised up to an altitude of 3000 m above the sea level.