Mature beans are ready for harvest after 80 to 100 days. The crop has a intermediate water demand, irrigation intervals of 7 to 10 days are recommended. Fields should be constantly monitored for signs of drought.
Ideal soil types are rich black vertisols or loamy soils that are well-drained and have a pH of 6-7. However, if lime and gypsum are added to the soil, Vigna mungo can withstand acidic soils down to a pH of 4.5. The crop is sensitive to saline and alkaline soils. It is drought-tolerant and grows best in semi-arid areas.
Vigna mungo can be found in tropical areas of Asia, Madagascar and Africa. The plant is primariliy distributed in lowlands but can be found up to 1800 m above sea level. It grows best during the dry seasons in temperatures ranging from 25°C to 35°C.