Unlike most other crops, flowers on watermelon plants cannot develop into fruits on their own. The specialty of this plant is that male and female flowers are produced separately on the same plant. The male flowers are smaller in size and appear first while female flowers are huge and appear later. The female flowers have a small fruit at the base. In case it shrivels, it means there would be no pollination. In nature, bees carry the pollen while hopping from flower to flower gathering nectar. Therefore, setting up an artificial beehive in the watermelon field is a good idea.
Watermelon grows well in deep fertile and well-drained soil. It gives best results when grown on sandy or sandy loam soil. Water must easily drain off from the soil else the vines are likely to develop fungal infections. Follow crop rotation as continuous growing of same crop on same field leads loss of nutrients, poor yield and more disease attack. The pH of the soil must be between 6.0 and 7.5. Acidic soil would result in withering away of the seeds. While soil with a neutral pH is preferred, it can also grow well even if the soil is slightly alkaline.
Being a warm season crop, the plant requires ample sunshine and dry weather for production of fruits. In India, since the climate is mostly tropical, all seasons are suitable for watermelon cultivation. However, watermelon is sensitive to cold and frost. Therefore, in parts of the country where winter is severe, watermelons are cultivated after the frost has passed. 24-27⁰C is ideal for the seed germination and growth of watermelon plants.